Agriculture integrated into overarching food-security focus
The US is the largest donor to agriculture and rural development, disbursing US$1.7 billion in official development assistance (ODA) to this sector in 2015, according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data. This makes the US the largest donor country to this area, representing 21% of the total agriculture ODA provided by OECD donor countries in 2015. However, relative to the size of its overall development funding, the US spends less than the average spent by OECD donor countries (5% in 2015, OECD donor country average: 7%).
In 2015, US$1.4 billion, or 82%, of US ODA to agriculture was channeled bilaterally, according to OECD data. The top investment area was agricultural development, which received US$852 million, or 61%, of US bilateral agriculture ODA. Other investment priorities include agricultural policy and administration management (US$270 million, or 19%), agricultural alternative development (US$130 million, or 9%), and agricultural water resources (US$110 million, or 8%). The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) drives US bilateral agriculture, which is integrated into US food security activities. The agency has outlined seven priority areas for its work: 1) Feed the Future (see below), 2) agricultural research, 3) development of agricultural markets, 4) helping farmers access capital, 5) offering extension services, 6) developing sustainable agricultural strategies, and 7) emergency food assistance.
In addition to its bilateral support, the US provided US$312 million, or 18%, of its total agricultural ODA in the form of core contributions to multilateral organizations. This is well below the OECD donor country average of 45%. This low share is mainly due to the US’s large bilateral portfolio on agriculture and food security. Key multilateral recipients are the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the African Development Fund (AfDF), the Global Environmental Facility (GEF), and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). The US is also the largest supporter of the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP), which was a G20 initiative during the US presidency in 2009 to help implement the food security pledges made that year. According to GAFSP, as of August 2016, the US has distributed US$588 million to it. According to government data, the US appropriated US$23 million to GAFSP in FY2017 (October 2016 to September 2017). Contributions to GAFSP are reported to the OECD as bilateral ODA to agriculture.
Under President Obama, the US put food security at the top of its foreign assistance agenda with the introduction of the flagship Feed the Future initiative in May 2010. US food security efforts encompass food assistance, agricultural and rural economic development, and nutrition. US agriculture programs are thus part of the US’s overall engagement with food security/assistance. The first-ever presidential Policy Directive on Global Development (PPD-6) signed in September 2010 provides an overarching vision for US development cooperation (see Key question 1: What are the US’s strategic priorities for development?). It references Feed the Future as a key mechanism for implementing US global development policy. In addition, agriculture and food security are highlighted in the State Department and USAID’s Joint Strategic Plan FY2014-2017 as a cross-sectoral development priority for the US.
Priority countries for Feed the Future:
- Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Senegal, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia
- Asia: Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal, Tajikistan
- Americas and the Caribbean: Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras
Feed the Future is the US’s largest bilateral agriculture program, and uses a ‘whole-of-government’ approach to align and coordinate various food and agricultural programs. It was introduced in part to help meet US food security pledges made at the G8 Summit in 2009. The US pledged US$10 billion over three years to address hunger in sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia. The initiative supports partner countries’ development of their agricultural sectors to foster economic growth, as well as reduce hunger, poverty, and undernutrition. According to the US Government Global Food Security Strategy FY2017‑2021, Feed the Future focuses on: 1) inclusive agriculture sector growth, 2) gender integration, 3) improved nutrition, 3) private sector, 4) research and capacity building, and 5) resilience. It places a special emphasis on smallholder farmers, especially women, the extreme poor, youth, other marginalized communities, and small and medium enterprises in 19 priority countries. Much of Feed the Future was codified into law in 2016 under the Global Food Security Act, along with the Emergency Food Security Program. GAFSP, housed at the World Bank, is the multilateral component of Feed the Future.
Agricultural research and capacity building is a core objective of Feed the Future. In the Feed the Future research strategy, three priority areas are outlined: 1) advancing the productivity frontier, 2) transforming production systems, and 3) enhancing nutrition and food safety. The initiative supports the Consortium of International Agricultural Research Centers (CGIAR), providing US$117 million in 2014.
For over 60 years, the US has deployed food assistance to mitigate global hunger and malnutrition. US international food assistance has been distributed mainly through four main initiatives, which are now operational components of Feed the Future. They are: 1) the Food for Peace Act (FFPA, also known as PL 480), 2) the Food for Progress Act, 3) the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program, and 4) the Emergency Food Security Program. They are primarily implemented by USAID or the Department of Agriculture, through its Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS). Funding for the first three initiatives comes from agricultural appropriations – mostly through the ‘farm bill’ (see box 1 below). The Emergency Food Security Program receives its funding through the State-Foreign Operations appropriations bill (see box 2 below; see Key question 4: How is the US’s ODA budget structured?).
Box 1: Farm bill
The ‘farm bill’ is the primary agriculture and food policy tool of the US government, first passed in 1933. It is a comprehensive bill which Congress reauthorizes every five years and deals with programs under the US Department of Agriculture, including its foreign assistance activities. The farm bill is often highly political both in terms of cost and policy. For the foreign assistance element, one of the most contentious issues is the ‘cargo preference’ provision, in which Congress requires a percentage of “government-impelled” cargo, including food assistance, to be carried overseas on US ships to support the US merchant marine.
Box 2: US international food assistance programs and implementing agencies
Food for Peace Act (FFPA)
- Title I: Economic Assistance and Food Security: implemented by Department of Agriculture (FAS); provides funding for concessional sales program and Food for Progress (see below)
- Title II: Emergency and Private Assistance: implemented by USAID; provides agricultural commodities for nonemergency assistance through eligible organizations, authorizes agricultural commodities for both emergency and development food assistance programs
- Title III: Food for Development: implemented by USAID; enhances food security and supports long-term economic development in the least-developed countries
- Title V: Farmer-to-Farmer: implemented by USAID; provides voluntary technical assistance to farmers, farm groups, and agribusinesses in developing and transitional countries
Food for Progress
- Implemented by Department of Agriculture (FAS); provides commodities on credit terms or on a grant basis to developing countries and emerging democracies
McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program
- Implemented by Department of Agriculture (FAS); aims to reduce hunger and improve literacy and access to primary education, especially for girls, through the provision of school meals and teacher training
Emergency Food Security Program (EFSP)
- Implemented by USAID; provides cash-based food assistance in response to international crises to complement FFPA Title II
USAID and Department of Agriculture lead food assistance initiatives
According to government data, the US global agriculture efforts are funded by 14 different agencies and implemented by 11 of these. Key entities involved in decision-making and implementation include:
USAID: Leads on strategy and implementation of the US’s food security and agriculture programming, primarily through Feed the Future. USAID coordinates the initiative through its Administrator who serves as the US Global Food Security Coordinator. In this role, the Administrator is supported by two deputy coordinators to drive a holistic, government‑wide approach:
- Deputy Coordinator for Development: based at USAID, coordinates the implementation of the program across the government, reports on results, and engages externally to ensure food security remains on the global development agenda
- Deputy Coordinator for Diplomacy: based at the State Department, leads on diplomatic aspects of food security and nutrition.
USAID’s Bureau for Food Security (BFS) was established to manage Feed the Future, and the Deputy Coordinator for Development for Feed the Future acts as Assistant to the Administrator of this Bureau. The Office of Food for Peace in the Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance, as well as the Bureau for Global Health also help implement US food security cooperation. Further, the Center for Resilience, the Global Development Lab, and the Bureau for Economic Growth, Education, and Environment are all involved in US agricultural and food security activities.
Department of Agriculture: Primarily provides international food assistance through its various programs. It is also responsible for some training, capacity building programs, and research activities in the US food security portfolio. The department has more than 90 offices in US embassies globally that participate in US agriculture and nutrition initiatives. The Foreign Agricultural Service is the department’s main international arm. It implements Food for Progress and the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program as well as the Agricultural Research Service (ARS).
Challenge Corporation (MCC): Administers the Challenge Account, an initiative to provide development assistance to low-income countries and lower-middle income countries that have committed to political, economic, and social reforms on economic development. In countries with MCC compacts, MCC plays an essential role in funding and shaping development policy, including for agriculture cooperation. MCC’s agricultural work includes rural infrastructure, irrigation projects, farmer training, land projects, rural finance, and nutrition.
Congress: Responsible for authorizing, overseeing, and funding the US’s agriculture and food security programs. There are several important congressional committees responsible for the authorization of programming: Food aid authorizing legislation lies with the Senate’s Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Committee and the House’s Agriculture Committee. The House Foreign Affairs Committee and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee also have jurisdiction over some legislation, such as the Global Food Security Act. The Senate and House Agriculture Appropriations Committees decide on funding for programs under their jurisdiction. As some food aid is also authorized in foreign assistance legislation, the Foreign Operations Appropriations Subcommittees in both chambers are also responsible for making funding decisions.
Other government entities involved in funding and implementation:
Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC), Department of Commerce, Department of State, Department of the Treasury, Department of Defense, Department of Homeland Security, Environmental Protection Agency, Peace Corps, African Development Foundation, the US Geological Survey, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institutes of Health.
- Congressional Research Service, US International Food Aid Programs: Background and Issues (2016)
- US International Development Agency, Office of Food for Peace, Bureau for Democracy, Conflict and Humanitarian Assistance, 2016-2025 Food Assistance and Food Security Strategy (2016)
- US Government, Feed the Future: Global Food Security Research Strategy (2011)
- White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Fact Sheet: US Global Development Policy (2010)