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UK Prime Minister reportedly wants to reinstate 0.7% of GNI for ODA commitment in 2022, but Chancellor of Exchequer against move

UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson reportedly wants to return to spending 0.7% of the UK’s gross national income (GNI) on official development assistance (ODA) in 2022, but he is facing opposition by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rishi Sunak, who wants to continue to provide 0.5% of ODA in 2022.

The government decided in 2020 to temporarily cut the ODA budget to 0.5% of GNI as a result of the economic impact of the COVID-19 crisis on UK government finances. Johnson is facing increasing pressure to reverse the decision by a wide array of stakeholders and a growing number of members of parliament (MPs) from across all parties. 28 MPs from seven different political parties recently wrote a letter to the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Minister, Dominic Raab, claiming that the government’s recent decision to not allow members of parliament to vote on the reduced target of 0.5% was in breach of the law.

The government had initially noted that it would put the new lower target to a vote, but it recently reversed this decision, arguing that given the temporary nature of the new lower target, the vote was not necessary. However, signatories of the letter cite the findings of the ex-Director of Public Prosecutions, Lord Macdonald of River Glaven, who notes that the International Development Act 2015 does not make provision to change the 0.7% target itself, only to miss it due to exceptional circumstances.

News article - Bloomberg

News article - The Times

UK hosts Climate and Development Ministerial meeting, calls for more and better climate finance and debt relief

The UK hosted a virtual Climate and Development Ministerial meeting on March 31, 2021, to address the climate challenges facing the poorest countries in the world, ahead of COP26, the annual UN climate conference which the UK will host this year (November 2021) in Glasgow.

The ministerial meeting brought foreign, development, and climate ministers from around the world together virtually, along with representatives from development banks. The meeting was focused on:

  • Improving  responses to climate impacts, with a focus on coordination and international cooperation to address losses and damages related to climate change;
  • Improving debt relief and alleviating fiscal pressure to enable low-income countries to address the climate crisis; and
  • Enabling more and better climate finance to help countries adapt to and mitigate climate change.

The UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Minister, Dominic Raab, who attended the meeting, called for a greater volume of climate finance to help vulnerable and poor countries, as well as debt relief to help increase their fiscal space for addressing climate challenges. Raab pointed out that there is an opportunity to ensure that efforts to build up economies after the fallout of the COVID-19 crisis support a green recovery. 

Earlier in the week, Lord Ahmad, a UK Minister for the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, spoke at the UN's 'Meeting of Heads of State and Government on the International Debt Architecture and Liquidity'. Ahmad noted that the UK would use both its G7 Presidency and its hosting of COP26 to push for further debt relief action. In particular, he highlighted the need for the G7 to push for a general issuance of Special Drawing Rights from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to provide financial support to low-income countries, the need to establish a common framework that brings all official and private-sector creditors together to deliver coordinated debt treatments, and the need for increased transparency of sovereign debt.

Transcript - UK government 

Transcript - UK government

News article - Reuters

UK cuts humanitarian assistance to Syria by nearly third; meanwhile, speculation grows over who will take over top UN humanitarian position

The UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Minister, Dominic Raab, has announced that the UK will provide £205 million (US$275 million) to the Syrian refugee program at a recent donor pledging conference. This represents a cut of up to a third of the UK’s contribution from last year, which amounted to £300 million (US$403 million), and the cut comes despite heavy lobbying for the UK to maintain its commitment to Syria.

The decision to cut the budget comes as speculation grows as to who will replace Mark Lowcock, the former Permanent Secretary of the UK's Department for International Development (DFID), when he leaves his role as the head of the UN’s humanitarian operations. Lowcock announced that he was departing imminently in order to spend more time with his family. The post has traditionally been given to a British national, though there is a drive to select the person based on merits.

British nationals in the running include Nic Dyer, the UK Special Envoy for Famine Prevention and Humanitarian Affairs, or Harriet Mathews, the Director for Africa at the UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office. Outside of the UK, Olof Skoog (a Swedish diplomat who is the EU Ambassador to the UN), William Chemaly (a Lebanese human rights and humanitarian protection specialist who has worked as a Senior Policy Advisor for the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)), and Koen Davidse (a Dutch Executive Director at the World Bank) have all been proposed as potential candidates.

News article - The Guardian

News article - The New Humanitarian

World leaders join European Council President and WHO Director-General in calling for international pandemic treaty

World leaders joined European Council President Charles Michel and World Health Organization (WHO) Director-General Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus in signing an op-ed calling for a new international pandemic treaty to ensure improved global pandemic preparedness and response for future potential health crises. 

The op-ed acknowledged that no country or multilateral agency could address the COVID-19 pandemic—or future pandemics—alone and that the current crisis serves as a reminder that no one is safe until everyone is safe. The treaty would encourage an “all-of-government and all-of-society approach” at all levels to enhance cooperation on a variety of preparedness and response measures. It would fortify mutual accountability and use a 'One Health' approach that looks at human health not as an isolated entity, but rather as intertwined with the health of animals and our planet. 

The heads of states highlighted the role that the Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) has played in fighting the pandemic, as well as the lessons it has provided, including the need for stronger partnerships for equitable access to treatment and vaccines globally.

Leaders from the following countries signed the treaty: Fiji, Thailand, Portugal, Italy, Romania, the UK, Rwanda, Kenya, France, Germany, Greece, South Korea, Chile, Costa Rica, Albania, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, the Netherlands, Tunisia, Senegal, Spain, Norway, Serbia, Indonesia, and Ukraine.

Press release - Council of the EU

Press release - WHO

News article - Euractiv

Cuts to public research budget threaten UK government’s ambition of being science superpower

Leading UK academics and members of the parliament have urged the UK government to reverse its short- and long-term cuts to the UK public research budget. Academics and parliamentarians noted that the cuts risk thwarting the government’s ambition of being a science superpower in the coming decade, as outlined in its recently published Integrated Review of Security, Defence, Development and Foreign Policy.

Critics of the government's approach, point to the immediate short-term costs of the intended 70% cut in 2021-22 to UK official development assistance (ODA) funded research, noting that it will jeopardize COVID-19 research programs underway, including those supporting genomic analysis, as well as studies of transmission and treatment.

However, they also point to long-term concerns regarding funding for the UK’s continued participation in the Horizon Europe research program. Previously, funding for UK participation came from its EU membership fees, but now that the UK has exited the EU, there is a large hole in the budget.

UK Research and Innovation (UKRI), the main public science funding body, estimates that it could have to pay £2.0 billion (US$2.7 billion) a year from its current £8.5 billion (US$11.4 billion) budget to maintain British participation in the EU research program. Ottoline Leyser, Chief Executive of the UKRI, has noted, however, that UKRI is in active discussions with the government on how it can help to ensure the UK maintains engagement in the program.

News article - Financial Times

G7 Finance Ministers agree to new financial support package for low-income countries

The G7 Finance Ministers, led by the UK Chancellor of the Exchequer, Rishi Sunak, have announced that they will back a new allocation of the International Monetary Fund's (IMF’s) special draw rights (SDRs) to boost member reserves and enable much-needed liquidity to vulnerable countries. The deal still needs a stamp of approval from G20 and the IMF’s Financing Committee.

As part of the deal, the G7 will work with the IMF to improve the transparency and accountability around the usage of SDRs. They will also explore how richer countries can recycle their SDR holdings to further help low-income countries and come up with some options for how to do this.

Press release - UK government

UK government will cut ODA to 0.5% GNI without parliamentary vote

The UK Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, has confirmed that the government will no longer give the members of parliament a vote on the government’s plans to cut the UK development assistance budget from 0.7% of gross national income to 0.5%. The government announced a reduction in the UK development budget in November of 2020 as a result of the negative impact of COVID-19 on the government finances.

Johnson cited the change in plans, stating that because the cuts are temporary, they do not require legislative change given the extraordinary circumstances.

The move came as something of a shock to UK members of parliament who were given the impression following the announcement of the cuts in November, that they would be given a vote on whether or not the budget should be reduced. The number of members of parliament, particularly in the Conservative party in opposition to the cuts has been growing in recent months. 

News article - the Guardian

Long-awaited UK Integrated Review calls for continued UK leadership on development with focus on climate change, global health, conflict, defending universal rights including gender equality

The UK government has published its long-awaited 'Integrated Review of Security, Defence, Development and Foreign Policy'. The review sets out a new strategic framework for guiding UK defense, foreign, and development policy over the next decade in light of changing geopolitical and economic world.  

Key changes in the global environment identified by the review include the increasing strategic importance of China and the Indo-Pacific region, the rising competition between states and between democratic and authoritarian values, the fast pace of technological change, and transnational challenges such as climate change, global health risks, terrorism, and organized crime.

The review sets out four strategic objectives for navigating this changing world. Below is a summary of how the four objectives relate to international development assistance:  

  1. A strong focus on science and technology to ensure a UK strategic advantage: In terms of development, the review calls for science and technology to be fully integrated into the UK’s national security and international policy and confirms that the UK will continue to use its development assistance to support research and development (R&D) partnerships with low-income countries, sharing expertise to support the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The review pledges a stronger focus for public R&D spending on applied research, development and implementation, and supporting more high-risk research. Decisions on public funding for R&D should focus research on those areas with the potential for the greatest social and economic benefits including the most pressing global challenges of today and where the UK can add the most value.
  2. A continued UK leadership role in shaping an open international order including global development efforts: In terms of international development, the review calls for the UK to continue to be one of the world’s leading development actors and to focus on fighting poverty and achieving the SDGs. It also calls for the UK to ensure its development assistance investments remain evidence-based and transparent and focused on areas important to a global Britain and where the UK can have the greatest impact. The review notes that the UK will set out a new international development strategy that will align UK development assistance from 2022 to meet the Integrated Review’s strategic objectives. The review highlights the importance of the UK defending democracy and universal rights and makes specific mention of support to gender equality – via girls’ education and women’s economic empowerment. It also recommends that the UK continue to be a champion of humanitarian support and support the strengthening of institutions like the WTO and WHO. In terms of geographical focus and partner countries, the review calls for an Indo-Pacific tilt that goes beyond development cooperation, with the goal of the UK having the most integrated presence in the region of all European partners by 2030. The review also highlights South Africa, Nigeria, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Ghana in particular as key partners in further shared prosperity goals, democratic values, and security interests, and the review confirms the UK's continued support to conflict resolution and stabilization efforts in Somalia, Sudan, and Mali. It also highlights Yemen, Libya, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Egypt, and Morocco as key partners. The review also makes explicit that as countries graduate to being able to finance their own development, the UK should move towards providing expertise, and switch from grants to loans and focus on transnational challenges where there is mutual self-interest.
  3. Strengthening security and defense at home and overseas: The review calls for a more integrated approach to government work on conflict and instability and a continued focus on addressing the drivers of conflict and strengthening fragile states. The review announces the creation in the Foreign, Commonwealth, and Development Office of a new 'Conflict Centre' and calls for the cross-government Conflict, Stability and Security Fund, which has an £874 million budget (US$1.1 billion) for 2021-22, to prioritize resources on stability, resilience and security in regions of strategic importance to the UK.
  4. Building resilience at home and overseas: The review calls for a focus on transnational challenges of climate change, biodiversity loss, and global health. On climate change, the review highlights the government’s International Climate Finance commitment of £11.6 billion (US$15.6 billion) between 2021 and 2025 and commits at least £3 billion (US$4 billion) of this to solutions that protect and restore nature. The review calls on the UK to strengthen its work on global health security with a focus on bolstering international pandemic preparedness, reforming the WHO, and prioritizing the support of health systems and access to new health technologies through its ODA.

The UK will build on its One Health approach that recognizes the close connection between the health of people, animals, and the environment, and will set up a Global One Health Intelligence Hub as a single source of intelligence on human, animal, and environmental risks, as well as global networks of zoonotic experts. It will continue to partner with the EU and multilateral development banks on issues such as Anti-Microbial Resistance, HIV/AIDs, tuberculosis, and malaria. The review also calls for priority to be given to accelerating equitable access to COVID-19 vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics worldwide and supporting Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance.

Bond, the UK network of international development NGOs, has welcomed the review and its focus on open societies, climate change, health, and poverty alleviation but is concerned that development assistance funding will be reduced to countries most in need,

Report - The UK government

News article - Bond

Former European leaders in WHO expert advisory group call for "rethink" of policy to prevent future pandemics

Former European leaders on the independent Pan-European Commission on Health and Sustainable Development convened by the World Health Organization (WHO) have issued a call to action for policy reform to prevent future pandemics. 

In their report, the members of the expert advisory group called for using lessons learned from the COVID-19 crisis to fundamentally rethink policy priorities to implement a ‘One Health’ approach, address issues that have caused so many people to be vulnerable to the pandemic, make changes to the global financial system, promote global public goods for health, strengthen existing global health institutions, and support innovation in health systems. 

The group was chaired by Mario Monti—the President of Bocconi University and former Prime Minister of Italy—and included former presidents, prime ministers, ministers, CEOs, leaders of multilateral organizations, and other eminent leaders.

Report - WHO

Approximately 70% of surveyed Europeans support making COVID-19 vaccine technology public

YouGov, a global public opinion and data company, conducted a survey for the People's Vaccine Alliance, a global coalition of organizations fighting for human rights including Amnesty International and Oxfam.

82% of Italians interviewed think that the government should ask pharmaceutical companies to make public the formulation and technology to produce COVID-19 vaccines. 68% of Italians interviewed believe that the Italian government should do more to ensure that everyone receives the vaccine by 2021.

The poll was also conducted in the US, France, Germany, and the UK, and it found that on average across those countries, 69% of people thought "that governments should ensure vaccine science and know-how is shared with qualified manufacturers around the world rather than remaining the exclusive property of a handful of pharmaceutical giants and that vaccine developers should be adequately compensated for this" (69% in the US, 63% in France, 70% in Germany, and 74% in the UK). 

Presentation - YouGov (in Italian)

Press release - Oxfam International

UK to set up new independent Gender Equality Advisory Council for G7

The UK government has announced that it will be setting up a new independent Gender Equality Advisory Council (GEAC) to feed into the G7 Leaders’ Summit that it is hosting in Carbis Bay, Cornwall on June 11-13, 2021. The GEAC is aimed at bringing fresh ideas and new voices to G7 discussions on gender equality and will have a strong focus on science and technology.

The UK Minister for Women and Equalities, Liz Truss, is responsible for establishing the Council. Sarah Sands, a former editor of the London Evening Standard (a UK newspaper) and of the BBC Radio 4's Today news program, has been appointed as the Chair of the Council. Other members will include Sarah Gilbert, who led the work on the AstraZeneca/Oxford vaccine.

Canada established the first G7 Gender Equality Advisory Council in 2018 when it hosted the G7 and France continued the initiative.

Press release - UK government

News article - Government Computing

UK civil society calls on G7 world leaders to deliver transformative agenda; civil society C7 Summit to be held in April 2021

Bond, the UK network of development non-governmental organizations, has called for G7 world leaders to deliver a transformative agenda at the G7 Summit this year focused on protecting the most marginalized and building an inclusive, resilient, and sustainable future for everyone. The UK is hosting the G7 Leaders’ Summit in June 2021 in Carbis Bay, Cornwall.

In a recently published briefing, Bond set out seven key policy asks for G7 world leaders, calling on them to address the following topics:

  1. Health – Invest at home and abroad in stronger healthcare systems to ensure access to quality healthcare for all, redress health inequalities, and ensure that nations are resilient for future pandemics;
  2. Climate and environment – End all investment in fossil fuels, decarbonize the global economy, prioritize climate finance for vulnerable countries, and sign the Leaders' Pledge for Nature to stop biodiversity loss;
  3. Sustainable economic recovery – Ensure the private sector will be supported in any future international debt cancellations, as they are also needed to support decent work, social protection, and protect the livelihoods of marginalized people;
  4. Open societies and civic space – Be active champions of democracy and civil and human rights;
  5. Education – Ensure quality, inclusive, and equitable education for every child, with a special focus on addressing girls’ education;
  6. Food security and nutrition – Build sustainable and climate-resilient food systems and increase financial contributions for famine prevention and relief; and
  7. Conflict and atrocity prevention – De-escalate current conflicts, commit to action to address some of the most pressing crises, and support building peaceful societies.

Bond will be hosting a virtual Civil Society 7 Summit on April 19-20, 2021. The 'C7 Summit' will bring together civil society leaders from around the world and provide them with the opportunity to talk to the UK government and provide ideas for the joint communiqué of the G7 leaders’ summit.

Registration for the C7 Summit is open at the Bond website.

Report - Bond

UK government launches new program to support survivors and victims of sexual abuse in development sector

The UK government has announced a new program to support survivors and victims of sexual abuse, exploitation, and harassment in the development assistance industry. The program follows the UK-hosted International Safeguarding Summit in October 2018, following revelations of sexual abuse in the development sector, including by prominent UK-based non-government organizations.

The new program will fund the setting up of an online platform for people to report abuse. The platform is currently being piloted in Zambia.

The program will also provide £1.5 million (US$2 million) for support services for those who have experienced abuse. The services will be provided via the UN Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, as well as through local organizations, and will include cash transfers and psychological support.

The UK is additionally in the process of designing training to improve safeguarding investigations in international organizations.

News article - Devex

Press release - UK government

Donor Tracker webinar will focus on donor governments' funding for sexual and reproductive health and rights; accompanying publication available now

On March 11, 2021, at 4:00 PM CET, the Donor Tracker will host its third gender equality webinar with a focus on development finance for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).

The webinar accompanies the recent publication of a Donor Tracker Insight which analyzes the current funding landscape for the SRHR sector across three subsectors (STD control, including HIV/AIDS; reproductive health; and family planning), highlights trends in the last ten years of spending in the sector, profiles donor countries and multilaterals, and provides recommendations to donors for increasing engagement and impact in the sector.

The Donor Tracker will be joined in the March 11 webinar by Adam Wexler of the Kaiser Family Foundation, an expert on US funding flows to HIV/AIDS projects and global development funding for family planning.

The publication of the final Insight piece completes the Donor Tracker's Pillars of Gender Equality bundle, which also includes the previous two publications on funding for women's economic empowerment and financial inclusion and efforts to end gender-based violence.

Webinar registration - Zoom

Generation Equality? Trends from a Decade of Funding for SRHR - Donor Tracker

Donor Tracker webinar to host webinar on donor finance for sexual and reproductive health and rights

On March 11, 2021, at 4:00 PM CET, the Donor Tracker will host its third gender equality webinar with a focus on development finance for sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR).

The webinar accompanies the recent publication of a Donor Tracker Insight which analyzes the current funding landscape for the SRHR sector across three subsectors (STD control, including HIV/AIDS; reproductive health; and family planning), highlights trends in the last ten years of spending in the sector, profiles donor countries and multilaterals, and provides recommendations to donors for increasing engagement and impact in the sector.

The Donor Tracker will be joined in the March 11 webinar by Adam Wexler of the Kaiser Family Foundation, an expert on US funding flows to HIV/AIDS projects and global development funding for family planning.

The publication of the final Insight piece completes the Donor Tracker's Pillars of Gender Equality bundle, which also includes the previous two publications on funding for women's economic empowerment and financial inclusion and efforts to end gender-based violence.

Webinar registration - Zoom

Generation Equality? Trends from a Decade of Funding for SRHR - Donor Tracker

UK research community slams government’s decision to cut international development research budgets

The UK Research and Innovation Agency (UKRI), which is responsible for science funding, has told researchers that its budget for international development research has been cut by more than half in 2021 from £245 million (US$329 million) to £120 million (US$161 million).

UKRI received official development assistance (ODA) funding predominately via the UK’s Global Challenge Research Fund, managed by the UK Department on Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy. The cuts are part of the UK government's decision in November 2020 to reduce the UK ODA budget from 0.7% of gross national income to 0.5%.

The cut in funding will put in jeopardy hundreds of research and science projects aimed at addressing some of the world’s biggest global challenges, including tackling climate adaptation, ensuring food security, and addressing neglected tropical diseases. 

Jeremy Farrar, the Director of the Wellcome Trust, a global charity focused on supporting medical research, said the cuts were very concerning.

News article - The Guardian

News article - The Telegraph

65% of global survey respondents say government action is needed to combat gender inequalities

The Generation Equality Forum, a global gathering to promote gender equality organized by UN Women and convened by Mexico and France, will kick off in Mexico City on March 29, 2021 and culminate with a meeting of heads of state in Paris on June 30-July 2, 2021.

Ahead of the Forum, Focus 2030 and Women Deliver launched a comparative study entitled 'Citizens call for a gender-equal world: A roadmap for action', analyzing citizens' attitudes toward and expectations for tackling gender inequality.

The opinion survey, administered by Deltapoll Institute with the support of the Development Engagement Lab project hosted at UCL and Birmingham University, covered 17 countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, Colombia, France, Germany, Great Britain, India, Japan, Kenya, Mexico, New Zealand, South Africa, Switzerland, Tunisia, and the US.

Published in English, French, and Spanish, the survey gathers opinions and experiences on gender equality to capture citizens' perceptions of, attitudes toward, and willingness to act in favor of gender equality, and it explores the gendered impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. A dedicated webpage offers access to open data through a data visualization tool.

The report notably reveals that the global public overwhelmingly supports gender equality. Key findings include:

  • 80% of respondents said gender equality is important to them personally;
  • 65% said they expect more from their government; and
  • 58% said their government should increase funding to international programs to tackle global gender inequalities in recognition of the Generation Equality Forum. 

Report - Focus 2030

Mexico kickoff event - Generation Equality Forum

Critics slam UK government for slashing development assistance to Yemen; concern grows for funding to other fragile and low-income states

The UK government has come under severe criticism for slashing its development assistance budget to Yemen in half, from £164 million (US$220 million) in 2020 to £87 million (US$116 million) in assistance in 2021.

The cuts are part of the UK government’s decision in November 2020 to reduce its official development assistance (ODA) budget from 0.7% of the gross national income to 0.5% as a result of the negative impact of COVID-19 on government finances.

Mark Lowcock, the head of the UN’s Office for Humanitarian Affairs stated that the UK government had decided to "balance the books on the backs of the starving people of Yemen" and over 100 charities have signed a letter to the UK Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, criticizing the decision.

Fears are growing for other low-income countries, as leaked documents revealed the scale of the development assistance cuts, with projected budget cuts of 59% to South Sudan, 60% to Somalia, 58% to Nigeria, and 67% to Syria.

News article - The Guardian

News article - Arab News

UK government delays parliamentary vote on cuts to development assistance budget in face of growing rebellion

The UK government has delayed bringing legislation to the parliament to reduce its development assistance budget in the face of a growing rebellion against the cuts by Conservative members of parliament.

Current UK legislation requires the government to provide 0.7% of its gross national income (GNI) as official development assistance (ODA). In November 2020, the government announced it wanted to step back from this legal requirement and only provide 0.5% of GNI as ODA, due to the fiscal burden placed on the government as a result of COVID-19 pandemic.

However, a parliamentary vote is required to change the legislation. The vote was anticipated in early January 2021, but it was delayed and now seems to be pushed until late summer, due to a growing rebellion amongst Conservative members of parliament against the decision.  

While the changes to the law have not been voted on, the government is already making significant cuts to the UK ODA budget, slashing its ODA to Yemen in half. Further projected cuts of up to 50% to the bilateral program are also being planned, according to leaked documents.

Whether the actions of the government going ahead with the cuts without parliamentary approval are in breach of parliament is not yet clear.

News article - The Guardian

Development experts "appalled" as UK implies it may charge low-income countries for surplus vaccine

The UK government has refused to rule out the possibility that it may charge low-income countries for surplus vaccine given to them by the UK gives.

The UK has ordered 450 million vaccines, more than four times as many doses as its population will require and the government recently announced that it would provide any surplus vaccines to low-income counties, once all its citizens have been vaccinated. However, Lord Ahmad, a Minister for the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO), when questioned in parliament, refused to answer whether the UK would charge low-income countries for the surplus vaccines, evading the question.   

The Chair of the UK parliamentary International Development Committee, Sarah Champion, said she'd be "appalled" if the government stood to profit off the surplus vaccines.

News article - The Independent