Japan is the 5th-largest donor to education; education for women and girls increasingly a focus
Japan is the fifth-largest donor country to education, contributing US$737 million in official development assistance (ODA) flows to this sector in 2016 (the latest year for which complete data is available), according to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) data. In relative terms, Japan ranked 21st out of members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) countries in 2016, allocating 5% of its total ODA to education. This is below the OECD average of 8%.
Some countries report costs of scholarships and other tuition costs of hosting students from developing countries as ODA. Although reportable as ODA, they do not constitute transnational financial flows. If we exclude these costs, Japan becomes a larger donor. It ranked fourth among the 29 DAC donor countries in absolute terms, overtaking France, which disbursed over half its bilateral education ODA for such scholarships and tuition costs in 2016. Japan spent 29% of its bilateral education ODA on in-country student costs in 2017 (the latest year for which bilateral ODA data is available).
The ‘Development Strategy for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment’ focuses on women’s empowerment through promoting women’s rights and supporting female leadership.
Japan’s total spending in the education sector has declined over time, from a peak of US$1,015 million in 2011 to US$737 million in 2016, a decrease of 27%. Looking forward, ODA to education will likely stay stable or decrease slightly, given constraints to the ODA budget environment.
Japan’s long-term development policy document, the ‘Development Cooperation Charter’, lists education as a prerequisite for quality growth, along with healthcare, women’s empowerment, quality water and sanitation, food and nutrition, and lower inequality. The ‘Expanded SDGs Action Plan 2019’ also mentions several initiatives related to education that Japan plans to support, including the ‘Women’s World Banking’ initiative (related to financial literacy), the ‘JICA development Studies Program’, and the ‘African Business Education Initiative for Youth’.
Japan’s bilateral ODA focuses on post-secondary education and gender equality
Japan’s bilateral education ODA makes up a large and increasing portion of total education ODA. It stood at US$559 million in 2017, an increase from US$541million in 2016.
Half of Japan’s bilateral education ODA in 2017 was allocated to programs in post-secondary education (51%, US$286 million). Half of this (US$153 million) of this funding was for costs of scholarships and fees to support students from developing countries studying in Japan. 29% (US$163 million) of Japan’s bilateral education ODA in 2017 went to general education system strengthening. This comprised spending on education facilities and training and education policy and administration. Basic education received 10% (US$57 million) of bilateral ODA to education in 2017, which was largely made up of support for primary education.
These funding shares largely reflect the priorities outlined in Japan’s new education strategy ‘Learning Strategy for Peace and Growth - Achieving Quality Education through Mutual Learning’, which Japan developed in the context of the SDGs in 2015. The three priority areas are:
- Achieving “inclusive, equitable and quality learning”. This entails collaboration with partner countries on education to support the establishment of self-reliant and inclusive (especially for girls and other disadvantaged groups) education systems.
- “Industrial, science & technology human resource development and sustainable social economic development”. Japan aims at supporting the full education cycle from primary to secondary to higher education.
- Establishing and expanding an “international/regional network for educational cooperation”. This includes promoting South-South cooperation and collaboration with international organizations, such as the Global Partnership for Education (GPE), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) or the UN’s Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Over a third of bilateral education ODA goes to Asia (38% in 2017), which is in line with the general focus of Japan’s development assistance in the region.
The second-largest recipient region is sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), which received 17% of all education ODA in 2017. Assistance to countries in SSA could increase in the coming years due to funding flows resulting from commitments made as part of the 2016 Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) in Kenya. TICAD is a conference organized by the Japanese government to promote Africa’s development. TICAD VI was held in Kenya in 2016 – the first time it took place in Africa. Two of the three priority areas identified during the conference refer to education, with special emphasis on vocational training. In total, Japan committed US$30 billion in private- and public-sector funds to Africa at the conference. The next TICAD will be held in August 2019 in Yokohama.
Japan also supports the GPE and has contributed US$30 million since it joined in 2008. Japan pledged US$5 million to GPE for the 2018 to 2020 financing period.
MOFA sets priorities for education; JICA formulates bilateral education projects
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA), led by Foreign Minister Taro Kono, sets priorities for education, in consultation with other ministries. Within MOFA, the International Cooperation Bureau leads policy design and ODA budget development. The Bureau’s Global Issues Cooperation Division is responsible for multilateral and some sector policies including education.
The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), led by Education Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi, mostly manages the costs associated with students from developing countries studying in Japan. The Japan Agency for International Cooperation (JICA) department for Human Development is also involved in education project formulation, especially related to bilateral funding.