Policy Context

Japan is tackling climate change through both mitigation and adaptation: Japan proves ODA to help partner countries adapt to climate change and mitigate its effects in line with the Development Cooperation Charter. This includes aligning Japan's development assistance with the goals of the Paris Agreement and contributing to both addressing developmental issues in developing countries and promoting measures against climate change. In addition, JICA’s Climate Cooperation Strategy, last updated in 2016, names four priority issues:

  • Promoting low-carbon, climate-resilient infrastructure;
  • Enhancing climate risk management;
  • Supporting climate policy and institution building; and
  • Enhancing forest and other ecosystem conservation and management.

The Suga and Kishida administrations have made new major commitments by making climate one of the four pillars of the Kishida administration's Growth Strategy. Specific development assistance policies for climate change adaptation are also included in the Basic Policies for the Economic and Fiscal Management and Reform, approved by the Cabinet every June.

In October 2021, the cabinet approved four strategies to address the climate crisis: an Adaptation Plan, the Plan for Global Warming Countermeasures, the Paris Agreement strategy, and the Nationally Determined Contribution. The Japanese ODA charter has been revised to commit to providing ODA to help partner countries adapt to climate change and mitigate its effects.

ODA Spending

How much ODA does Japan allocate to climate projects?

In 2022, Japan’s ODA targeting climate change as a principal or significant goal totaled US$15.2 billion, comprising 77% of bilateral allocable ODA, significantly above the DAC average of 29%.

Japan remained the largest DAC donor for climate-related ODA in both absolute and relative terms in 2022. 

How is Japan's climate ODA changing?

Japan’s ODA to climate increased by 136% in 2020 but decreased by 35% in 2021 to below 2018 levels. However, in 2022, Japan's ODA to climate increased to a record high.

How does Japan allocate climate ODA?

The 50% of Japan’s climate-related ODA is directed to projects in infrastructure, with the remaining funding directed towards health and populations (10%), industry, construction and mining (8%), and energy (7%), among others.

Japan spent US$6.1 billion of ODA on projects related to climate adaptation and US$10.2 billion on climate mitigation. US$1.1 billion went to projects related to both adaptation and mitigation.


In 2021, adaptation-related ODA to health primarily focused on COVID-19 control, health policy and administrative management, and medical services, with adaptation as a secondary objective. Adaptation-related general budget support was mostly provided to SIDS. WASH received the largest share of Japan's principal adaptation-related ODA and focused on large water supply and sanitation systems. Under agriculture, Japan's spending prioritized rural development and agricultural development.

Multilateral Spending and Commitments

Japan’s multilateral climate funding is low. Not all of Japan’s contributions to multilaterals are considered ODA. This includes contributions to the following multilaterals:   

Funding Outlook

What is the current government's outlook on climate ODA?

Commitments made at international climate conferences and in multi-party agreements impact Japan’s climate-related ODA policies. At COP28, Japan committed to providing US$10 million to the Loss and Damage Fund, significantly lower than the commitments of other major economies.

In March 2022, Japan contributed US$42 million to UNDP’s Climate Promise Initiative to assist 23 countries in meeting the NDCs, making it the largest donor in the next phase of this initiative. NDCs are climate change mitigation plans that set out national strategies to achieve the global targets set out in the Paris Agreement. The funding will support countries across Asia-Pacific, Central Asia, Europe, and Africa.

Japan has also established the Joint Crediting Mechanism, a bilateral offset mechanism that allows Japan to credit contributions of low-carbon technologies and expertise to LICs and MICs towards its own international emissions reduction commitments. Since establishing the JCM in 2011, Japan has signed agreements with 17 countries.

Key Bodies

Related Publications

A new era of development assistance: Key takeaways from the G7 summit

Transforming global health financing: Key outcomes from WHA 2024

Donor Updates in Brief: 2023 OECD Preliminary Data

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