Issue Deep Dive

Japan / Agriculture

Last updated: April 14, 2023

ODA Spending 

How much does Japan allocate to agricultural ODA?

Japan was the fourth-largest DAC donor to agriculture in 2021.

Funding for agriculture and rural development represented 5% of Japan’s total ODA in 2021, lower than the DAC average of 6%. 

How is Japanese agricultural ODA changing?

Japan’s ODA to agriculture decreased by 12% in 2021.

In line with its overall ODA, Japan channeled most of its ODA for agriculture projects bilaterally, including a small share as earmarked funding through multilaterals. The share of agriculture ODA channeled as core funding to multilaterals has been increasing and stood at 44% in 2021.

How does Japan allocate agricultural ODA?

Bilateral Spending 

Japan’s bilateral agricultural ODA amounted to US$606 million in 2021, an increase of 30% from 2020 levels. In 2021, agricultural water resources received the largest share of bilateral funding (32%), followed by fishery development (10%), rural development (9%), and agricultural policy and administrative management (7%).

Multilateral Spending and Commitments 

Multilateral ODA to agriculture stood at US$473 million in 2021, representing 44% of total agricultural ODA. The largest recipient was the GCF (US$208 million), followed by the International Development Association (US$115 million), and ADF (US$98 million).

Japan joined the GAFSP in 2012 and pledged US$30 million to GAFSP’s private sector window. By the end of 2016, Japan had disbursed the full amount. No further pledges or disbursements have been made to GAFSP since then.

The table below summarizes Japan’s more recent commitments to multilaterals working on agricultural development. Some of these commitments are considered core funding to multilaterals, while others will be earmarked funding through multilaterals. 

Funding and Policy Outlook 

What is the current government's outlook on agricultural ODA?

Agriculture and food security are key to enhance the autonomy and resilience of socioeconomic systems: In its Development Cooperation Charter, Japan advocates for cooperation to strengthen and diversify supply chains, diversify economies, ensure the sustainable supply of resources, foster and protect technology, improve investment environments, and enhance food production and nutrition. Most of the country’s bilateral ODA for agriculture and rural development is channeled through JICA. JICA focuses particularly on promoting sustainable agriculture production, stable food supply, and dynamic rural communities. Japan has historically supported small-scale farming and is likely to continue to do so.

Emphasis on improving agricultural outcomes in Africa: Japan emphasizes agriculture in Africa and has included agriculture as a recurring theme of its TICAD. One notable output of TICAD was the CARD initiative, which was launched by JICA, the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa, and the New Partnership for African Development following TICAD IV in 2008. Organized as a consultative group of bilateral and multilateral donors as well as African and international institutions, CARD works to double rice production in Africa. JICA implements numerous bilateral projects on the development of rice production capabilities with CARD partner countries. This focus is set to continue as CARD enters its second phase of programming (2019-2030).

Key bodies 

Related Publications

2023 Africa Climate Week & Africa Climate Summit Pre-Read

Japan's revised Development Cooperation Charter: Adapting to contemporary challenges

The New Global Financing Pact: Key takeaways and opportunities for advocates

Looking for a cross donor perspective?

Learn more about SEEK's work on agriculture

Nadia Setiabudi

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