At a glance
- Sweden is the eighth-largest donor, with ODA at US$5.9 billion in 2021 (current prices, US$5.4 billion in constant 2020 prices). Sweden is, however, the third-largest donor in proportion to the size of its economy: the country spent 0.92% of its gross national income (GNI) on official development assistance (ODA) in 2021. Total ODA decreased in real terms by 16% between 2020 and 2021, due to the full inclusion in 2020 of Sweden’s multi-year contribution to the Green Climate Fund.
- Since 1975, Sweden has exceeded the United Nations (UN) 0.7% target for the ratio of ODA-to-GNI. Since 2008, it has maintained its long-term commitment to spending around 1% of its GNI on ODA.
- According to the government’s budget, ODA levels are set at SEK57.4 billion in 2022 (US$6.2 billion in 2020 prices), which would represent a 10% increase over the 2021 budget.
- The Swedish government’s 2016 ‘Policy framework for Swedish development cooperation and humanitarian assistance’ is aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). It outlines eight focus areas: 1) human rights, democracy, and the rule of law; 2) gender equality; 3) the environment and climate change; 4) peace and security; 5) inclusive economic development; 6) migration and development; 7) health equity; and 8) education and research.
- Gender equality and women’s empowerment are central to Swedish foreign and development policy. Sweden was the first country to implement a ‘Feminist Foreign Policy,’ launched in 2014, which applies a gender equality lens to every element of the country’s foreign policy framework.
- Sustainable use of natural resources, marine resources, environmental preservation, and combatting climate change are other key priorities reflected in Sweden’s multilateral engagement. Sweden is the highest per-capita contributor to the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility.
- Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson of the Social Democrats (S) took over office as the first female prime minister in November 2021. Andersson is leading a one-party minority government until the next Swedish general elections in September 2022. Andersson continues to prioritize the ‘feminist foreign policy’ and the fight against climate change, along with other issues such as the COVID-19 crisis, democracy, and migration.
- The government remains committed to the 1% ODA-to-GNI standard despite mounting pressure from some opposition parties to cut funding levels. As of now, it is unlikely that the commitment will be formally renounced, but it may be a topic of debate during the 2022 September election campaign and part of the negotiation process when forming Sweden’s next government.
- Russia’s sudden invasion of Ukraine has meant that Sweden’s funding towards in-country refugee costs from its ODA budget might experience a surge. This would come at great costs to other areas of ODA spending and is expected to affect other areas of Sida’s work including funding to climate adaptation, gender equality, sustainable development, and support for recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic.
Sweden is the sixth-largest donor in absolute terms and the largest in proportion to the size of its economy
In 2021, Sweden’s ODA stood at US$5.9 billion (current prices), making it the eighth-largest donor among members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) in absolute terms. In relative terms, Sweden is the third-largest donor among DAC members: ODA stood at 0.92% of Sweden’s GNI in 2021, down from 1.14% in 2020. Sweden’s commitment to development cooperation remains one of the strongest in the world; Sweden held on to first place in the Center for Global Development’s 2021 ‘Commitment to Development Index.’
Sweden has exceeded the United Nations (UN) target of 0.7% ODA-to-GNI ratio since 1975, and since 2008 it has been committed to spending 1% of its GNI on ODA. After reaching US$6.3 billion in 2020, ODA decreased by 16% to US$5.4 billion in 2021 (in constant 2020 prices), a decrease largely due to the full inclusion in 2020 of Sweden’s multi-year contributions made to the Green Climate Fund (GCF).
The current government is supportive of the 1% commitment (as are all parties except the far-right Sweden Democrats and the center-right Moderates) meaning that beyond 2021, ODA levels are likely to remain closely linked to Sweden’s economic growth.
In its 2022 budget, the government set ODA at SEK57.4 billion (US$6.2 billion). This represents a 10% increase from the 2021 approved budget.
Between 2014 and 2017, costs of hosting refugees in Sweden accounted for a large share of the country’s reported ODA, peaking at US$2.4 billion in 2015 (34%), before gradually dropping to a decade low of US$149 million in 2020 (3% of total ODA). While these costs were likely to remain low going forward, Russia’s sudden invasion of Ukraine has meant that Sweden’s funding for refugee costs might experience a surge. The 2022 ODA budget set refugee costs at SEK1.2 billion (US$126 million, or 2%, of the budget). However, the government has earmarked SEK10.3 billion (US$1.1 billion in 2020 prices) from the ODA budget to cover the costs of hosting Ukrainian refugees. This could see refugee costs reach 18% of total ODA in 2022, with the funding coming at great costs to other areas of spending and resulting in the deferment, suspension, or reduction of some planned disbursements including core funding to multilateral organizations such as Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi) and The Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). The government has however prioritized fully protecting its humanitarian assistance, particularly assistance to the poorest countries, and continues to prioritize climate ODA to maintain its target of doubling climate ODA by 2025. The use of Sweden’s ODA budget to cover refugee-related costs remains a point of debate.
The Social Democrats are currently leading a single-party government, following the events that saw Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson take over the leadership of the government in 2021. Andersson’s plan to continue a coalition government with the Greens party fell through as her budget proposal failed to pass in November 2021 causing the Greens to quit the coalition. The next elections are scheduled for September 2022. Meanwhile, Andersson continues to prioritize a ‘feminist foreign policy’ and the fight against climate change, along with other issues such as the COVID-19 crisis, democracy, and migration.
Unless otherwise indicated, all data in this section is based on the grant-equivalent measurement system. For more information, see our Donor Tracker Codebook.
Sweden’s policy focuses on democratic governance, gender equality, SRHR, climate, and environmental resources
The Agenda 2030 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are central to Sweden's policies, and the government seeks to be a leader in implementing them both nationally and internationally.
The government's 2016 'Policy framework for Swedish development cooperation and humanitarian assistance' outlines the overall objectives of Swedish development cooperation and sets eight focus areas: 1) human rights, democracy, and the rule of law; 2) gender equality; 3) the environment and climate change, and the sustainable use of natural resources; 4) peace and security; 5) inclusive economic development; 6) migration and development; 7) health equity; and 8) education and research. Gender equality and women's empowerment (against the backdrop of its feminist foreign policy), human rights, and climate change remain flagship issues for the government (see box). The promotion of democratic governance is also a priority. The latest OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) peer review, published in June of 2019, commends Sweden for its leadership on peace and conflict prevention, environmental sustainability and climate change, and gender equality.
Sweden’s key development priorities:
- Gender equality and women's empowerment: Sweden's leadership is widely recognized in this area; feminist foreign policy governs overarching orientation of foreign policy.
- Climate change: Sweden is one of the largest per capita donors to the Green Climate Fund and the Global Environment Facility; bilateral ODA focuses on marine resources.
- Democratic governance, human rights, rule of law, and freedom of speech: Sweden has high standards for partner countries on rule of law and human rights.
In 2014, Sweden was the first country in the world to launch and implement a feminist foreign policy, allowing it to use all of its foreign policy tools (including development cooperation) to address gender equality globally and take a more systemic approach to the issue. In addition to mainstreaming gender in all its development programs, Sweden published its first development cooperation strategy specifically for gender equality and women's empowerment in May 2018. The strategy focuses on the full enjoyment of human rights by all women and girls, including through work on normative frameworks, discrimination, gender-based violence, safety, and security for actors and organizations that promote gender equality, and increased access and use of sex-disaggregated data and research. It is backed by a funding envelope of SEK1 billion (US$109 million) for 2018-2022.
Sweden is also committed to environmental protection and resilience, and disaster risk reduction, with a special emphasis on marine resources. In its ‘Strategy for development cooperation in sustainable environment, climate and marine resources, and sustainable use of natural resources’ the government set aside SEK6.5 billion (US$687 million) to promote progress in these areas between 2018 and 2022. This focus is also demonstrated at the multilateral level; Sweden is the largest per-capita donor to both the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and the Green Climate Fund (GCF). Sweden committed SEK2 billion (US$217 million) to GEF for 2018-2022 (50% increase in SEK compared to 2014-2018) and almost doubled its contribution to GCF to reach SEK8 billion (US$869 million) for 2020-2023. In October 2021, the Swedish government announced plans to double its climate development assistance budget to SEK15 billion (US$1.6 billion; in 2020 prices) by 2025, compared with 2019 levels.
Sweden defined three objectives in its 2018-2022 ‘Strategy for development cooperation in the areas of human rights, democracy and the rule of law’: 1) inclusive democratic societies; 2) equal rights for all; and 3) security, justice, and accountability. Women’s and girls’ enjoyment of human rights is central to the strategy. Human rights, democracy, and the rule of law have been a long-standing priority issue, particularly for the Center and the Liberal parties, upon whose support the current single-party government depends to pursue its policies.
Conflict prevention and humanitarian assistance are also seen as key priorities. Conflict prevention focuses on women, peace, and security, including training and integration of women in peace negotiation processes. Sweden’s humanitarian assistance is needs-based and presented separately from development focus areas in the 2016 ‘Policy framework for Swedish development cooperation and humanitarian assistance,’ but there is a focus on strengthening cooperation and increasing synergies between humanitarian initiatives and long-term development cooperation.
Sweden provides strong support to multilateral organizations
Sweden is a strong supporter of multilateral systems. In 2020, Sweden’s core contributions to multilateral organizations increased by 53% to reach US$2.8 billion. This represents 43% of Swedish ODA, up from 33% in 2019. This share is largely in line with the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) average of 42%. When contributions earmarked for multilaterals are added, this share rises to 66% (DAC average: 56%; see below for more information on Sweden’s multilateral engagement).
Sweden channels almost a third of its bilateral ODA through civil society organizations (CSOs; 31%), well above the DAC average of 19%. The government recognizes CSOs’ key role in reducing poverty, strengthening democratic development, and supporting human rights, especially in countries that are not democratically governed.
Humanitarian assistance is on the rise; democratic governance and human rights are funding priorities; health sector received increased funding driven by COVID-19 response
In 2020, the largest share of bilateral ODA went to the ‘government and civil society’ sector (22% of bilateral ODA, or US$796 million, although this is down from US$819 million in 2019). More than half of the funding in this area goes to projects supporting democratic participation or human rights. These areas remain salient for Sweden, especially following multiples instances of democratic backsliding, aggravated by the pandemic. Several cooperation strategies have received additional human rights funding to combat the increased repression of civil liberties during the pandemic.
Humanitarian assistance remains a growing funding area for Sweden, with a particular focus on conflict-affected areas. Accounting for 15% of bilateral funding, humanitarian assistance was the second-largest spending area of Sweden’s bilateral ODA in 2020. Funding to the sector has steadily increased in recent years, growing by 44% from US$382 million in 2015 to US$551 million in 2020. The 2022 budget set the overall funding level for humanitarian assistance at SEK4.5 billion (US$492 million in 2020 prices) but actual spend is likely to be much higher, driven by humanitarian support to Ukraine. Due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Sweden has so far decided to increase humanitarian assistance to Ukraine by SEK600 million (US$65 million).
Driven by COVID-19 related support, the health sector saw a 33% increase in bilateral funding in 2020, making it the third largest sector (9% of total bilateral funding). Without additional funding for COVID-19, the health sector would have seen just 4% increase in bilateral funding compared to 2019.
Virtually all of Sweden’s ODA consists of grants (98% in 2020). The remaining 2% (US$87 million) is made up of capital subscriptions (equity investments) by the MFA into Swedfund, Sweden’s state-owned development finance institution.
Sweden’s funding targets low-income countries and countries in sub-Saharan Africa
Sweden’s bilateral ODA primarily targets partner countries in ‘sub-Saharan Africa’ (meaning the countries of Eastern, Western, Central, and Southern Africa, according to the African Union’s designations) and low-income countries. The high volume of earmarked funding to multilaterals and funding to CSOs, as well as in-country refugee costs, are counted as bilateral ODA but cannot be allocated to specific countries; this distorts OECD data about recipients of Swedish ODA (see figure below). When excluding funding unallocated by region (41%), sub-Saharan Africa was the recipient of over half of Sweden’s bilateral ODA in 2020 (51%). In February 2022, Sweden adopted a new ‘regional strategy for development cooperation with Africa,’ which will focus on strengthening regional cooperation and integration in environment and climate, democracy and human rights, migration and development, economic integration, and peaceful and inclusive societies. The new strategy covers SEK4.7 billion (US$507 million) in total for the period 2022-2026.
The 2016 ‘Policy framework for Swedish development cooperation and humanitarian assistance’ states that bilateral funding must be focused on the lowest-income and most vulnerable countries. This policy is backed by funding data: more than half (52%) of Sweden’s bilateral ODA is allocated to low-income countries (when excluding funding that cannot be allocated to a specific country, 50% of total bilateral ODA) in 2020. Sweden has recognized that an increasing proportion of global poverty is found in middle-income countries, but the government is likely to continue to strengthen its focus on fragile states.
The Swedish development agency, Sida, has bilateral development cooperation with approximately 35 partner countries, the largest number of which are in ‘sub-Saharan Africa.
Sida’s partner countries for bilateral cooperation
- Sub-Saharan Africa: Burkina Faso, the DRC, Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe
- Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Myanmar
- Europe: Albania, Belarus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Georgia, Kosovo, Moldova, North Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine
- Latin America: Bolivia, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala
- Middle East and North Africa: Iraq, Palestine, Yemen
Sweden is a strong supporter of the UN system
Sweden financially supports multilateral organizations both through core contributions (43% of total ODA in 2020; US$2.8 billion) and through earmarked funding (23%; US$1.5 billion). Funding to multilateral organizations is disbursed in line with the January 2018 ‘Strategy for multilateral development policy,’ which defines the orientation of Sweden’s multilateral engagement and provides guidelines to the three main stakeholders for this area: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA), Sida, and Swedish embassies.
The unearmarked character of financing is one of three core principles outlined in this strategy for which Sweden strongly advocates at an international level. Large shares of what is reported as earmarked funding in OECD data is made up of funding to thematically focused organizations (e.g., the Global Partnership for Education) and funds, but not necessarily earmarked for a specific purpose within these funds. This is referred to as ‘soft’ earmarking. The second and third principles of Sweden’s ‘Strategy for multilateral development policy’ highlight the need for a long-term perspective in engagement with a multilateral organization and the need to foster coordination across the multilateral system.
Within its multilateral engagement, Sweden is a strong supporter of the UN: 26% of Sweden’s core contributions to multilaterals in 2020 went to the UN. Sweden supports UN reform efforts and pushes its ‘women, peace and security’ agenda. Its priorities in the UN include conflict prevention, peacebuilding, gender equality, global development, climate, and human rights.
Unless otherwise indicated, all data in this section is based on the cash-flow basis measurement system. For more information, see our Donor Tracker Codebook.
For more granular and up-to-date development finance data on Sweden, including information on where and in which sectors it is spending both ODA and non-ODA funds, please consult the IATI d-portal. IATI is a reporting standard and platform on which organizations and governments voluntarily publish data on their development cooperation.
MFA decides on strategy; Sida executes
The current Swedish government is led by Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson of the Social Democrats (S). Andersson became Sweden’s first female prime minister in November 2021, following the retirement of Stefan Lofven, who had been leading a Social Democrat-Green coalition government. Andersson’s plan for continuing a coalition government with the Green Party was thrown into disarray when her budget proposal failed to pass in November 2021. Instead, the parliament passed a budget drawn up by a group of opposition parties. The Greens, in their refusal to accept this budget, quit the government, meaning that Andersson will lead a one-party minority government, at least until the next general elections in September 2022.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) oversees development policy and financing and decides on core funding to multilateral organizations. Ann Linde (S) has led this ministry since September 2019. Previously, she worked as Minister for Foreign Trade, with responsibility for Nordic affairs (2019), and as Minister of EU Affairs and Trade (2016-2018).
Within the MFA, Matilda Ernkrans (S) was appointed Minister for International Development Cooperation in November 2021. She succeeded Per Olsson Fridh, who had held the position between February and November 2021. Upon her appointment, Ernkrans has expressed her support for the ODA-GNI 1% target; democracy promotion; rights for girls’ and women; and her intent to continue the focus on preventing climate change.
The Department for International Development Cooperation is a key development-related unit within the MFA and is responsible for overall governance and evaluation of development cooperation as well as coordination to draft the ODA budget. The department also coordinates planning on thematic focus and strategy for the Swedish development agency, Sida.
Other relevant departments are the UN Policy Department, responsible for support through UN organizations and thematic funds, and the Global Agenda Department, which coordinates the ‘2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.’ The Global Agenda Department also manages and develops the ‘feminist foreign policy,’ including gender-equality issues in development cooperation.
Sida administers and executes development policy implementation in cooperation with civil society organizations (CSOs), embassies, and other government agencies. Based on strategic guidelines set by the MFA, Sida and Swedish embassies draft strategies for countries, regions, and thematic areas. These are then further refined by the MFA and approved by the government. Country strategies outline key sectors of engagement and provide indicative budgets for the timeframe (usually three to seven years).
Sida manages about 48% of Sweden’s total ODA financing, amounting to SEK27.7 billion in 2022 (US$3.0 billion), in accordance with the strategies developed by Sida and the MFA. It also provides increasing amounts of guarantees (debt-backing), covering a wide range of areas (e.g., infrastructure, market development, agriculture, health, democracy, and human rights).
Sida is managed by a governing board, appointed by the Swedish government. Besides its Director-General (Carin Jämtin since June of 2017), who is responsible for Sida’s operational activities, the board includes members of the public administration, private sector, and academia. Sida has about 800 employees, many of whom work at Swedish embassies and 65% of whom are women.
Sweden’s development finance institution, Swedfund, is a state-owned investment fund that supports private-sector activities aimed at promoting sustainable economic development in sectors such as energy, infrastructure, and industry. It is supervised by the Ministry for Enterprise and Innovation and provides risk capital and investment for projects that alleviate poverty in low-income countries.
CSOs play a major role in Sweden’s development assistance. In 2020, almost a third of the country’s bilateral ODA was channeled through CSOs (31%), well above the OECD’s Development Assistance Committee (DAC) average of 19%. Sida has increased its engagement with Swedish CSOs to identify new methods of delivering its bilateral programs and increasing the effectiveness of development assistance.
Sida manages half of Sweden’s ODA budget
The current government is committed to allocating 1% of Sweden’s gross national income (GNI) to official development assistance (ODA). This share is outlined in each year’s budget and the total of all funding sources contributing to it is referred to as the ‘ODA frame.’ The 2022 budget, approved by Parliament in December 2021, sets the ODA frame at SEK57.4 billion, or US$6.2 billion in 2020 prices (1.0% of GNI).
According to the government’s budget proposal, ‘Budget Area 7: International assistance’ covers 90% of the ‘ODA Frame’ (SEK51.9 billion, or US$5.6 billion). The remainder consists mainly of, assessed contributions to the EU (5% of the ‘ODA frame’), spending to cover the costs of hosting refugees in Sweden (2%), and management costs of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA; 1%).
‘Budget Area 7’ includes all funding managed by Sida (the Swedish International Development Agency). Sida manages about 48% of Sweden’s total ODA financing (SEK27.7 billion, or US$3.0 billion, in 2022). This funding is divided into seven areas: 1) bilateral cooperation; 2) thematic cooperation; 3) humanitarian assistance; 4) funding for Swedish CSOs; 5) research cooperation; 6) capacity development and agenda 2030; and 7) information and communication.
‘Bilateral cooperation’ programs are guided by regional and country strategies, which assign indicative budget allocations. These strategies are developed by the MFA, Sida, and the various embassies, and approved by the government.
The ‘thematic cooperation’ program entails three main envelopes: 1) human rights, democracy, and the rule of law; 2) sustainable development; and 3) sustainable peace. As for country-based bilateral cooperation, each of these areas is governed by a strategy that defines spending ceilings and main funding areas.
‘Budget Area 7’ also includes the MFA’s funding lines for core contributions to UN agencies and other multilateral funds, as well as for multilateral development banks, debt relief, and ‘strategically oriented grants’ (see table).
Sweden's 2022 ODA Budget
|Total budget area 7 (International Assistance)||51,940||5,640|
|Funding for Swedish CSOs||1,955||212|
|Capacity development and Agenda 2030||710||77|
|Information and communication||155||17|
|Multilateral organizations (UN agencies) and funds||12,686||1,377|
|Multilateral development banks; debt relief||4,200||456|
|Strategically oriented grants||3,093||336|
|Administrative costs (including Sida's)||1,955||212|
|Costs of hosting refugees||1,156||126|
|MFA administrative costs||473||51|
|Other (e.g., funding for some UN agencies)||791||86|
|Total ODA ('ODA frame')||57,395||6,232|
The government allocates funding to specific areas from June to August
The Swedish budget process runs over a two-year period. It starts in the year that precedes its implementation and continues during the current fiscal year; the ongoing budget can be amended in spring and autumn.
- Sida develops its draft budget: By March 1 of the year before a budget comes into force, Sida submits its draft to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA). Sida's full budget is organized by strategies consisting of regions, countries, and broad thematic priorities (such as 'sustainable social development'). Sida's leadership and regional departments are the main decision-makers regarding budget requests.
- Ministry of Finance develops the Spring Fiscal Policy Bill: From March to April, the Ministry of Finance develops the Spring Fiscal Policy Bill based on each ministry's expenditure estimates. It includes ministerial expenditure ceilings for the next three years.
- Government presents the Spring Fiscal Policy Bill to Parliament: In mid-April, the government submits the Spring Fiscal Policy Bill to Parliament. The first decision on the overall ODA volume is made. Once determined, major changes to ODA volume are rare. The ODA budget is tied to the GNI level. This is followed by a debate in Parliament, which approves the budget bill in June.
- Minister for Development decides on specific budget lines: In July and August, the MFA's Minister for International Development Cooperation allocates further funding to expenditure areas within the main ODA budget. Broad budget lines (e.g., Sida's own budget) and allocations to specific budget items (e.g., Sida's thematic budget line on 'sustainable social development') are decided at this time.
- Government presents budget bill to Parliament: The government presents its budget bill to Parliament in mid-September (at the latest on the 20th), except during election years when this may be postponed until November 15.
- Parliament debates and amends budget bill: Debates take place from early October to early December. The Committee on Finance discusses the government's draft expenditure ceilings for all budget areas. The Committee on Foreign Affairs may propose amendments to specific allocations within the ODA Budget Area 7. Usually, under a minority government such as the current one, the government must negotiate closely with the opposition.
- Parliament votes on budget bill: In mid-December, the Parliament makes the final decision on the budget bill. The government then sends its annual appropriation letter to Sida, which specifies overall funding to Sida and the allocation of funds by regions or thematic issues.
The Spring Amending Budget Bill may be used to divert or reallocate funds originally allotted for the current year. The ongoing budget can also be amended in September when the government presents its budget bill to Parliament for the next year.