Germany

At a glance

ODA funding trends

  • Germany spent US$32.2 billion on total official development assistance (ODA) in 2021 (current prices), making it the second-largest Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor in absolute terms. This corresponds to 0.74% of its gross national income (GNI) allocated to ODA. Germany was the fourth-largest donor in relative terms in 2021 (up from fifth in 2020) making it the second year since 2016 that Germany has reached the 0.7% ODA/GNI target. Excluding in-country refugee costs, Germany spent 0.68% of its GNI on ODA in 2021.
  • Total ODA increased by 5.1% between 2020 and 2021 (in real terms), due to an increase in Germany’s bilateral and multilateral ODA resources to fight the COVID-19 pandemic and provide vaccine donations. The OECD DAC estimates total COVID-19-related ODA from Germany at US$3.0 billion in 2021.
  • After Germany’s ODA level reached record-high levels in 2020 and 2021, which were especially driven by Germany’s significant response to the international COVID-19 crisis, ODA was expected to decrease again in 2022 to US$26.2 billion and US$25.5 billion. However, the unexpected influx of refugees from Ukraine will likely inflate ODA levels, as costs for receiving refugees in Germany are partially counted as ODA.

Strategic priorities

  • Germany frames its development policy under an overarching narrative of combating poverty and hunger and ensuring the health of all people living in a healthy environment. Germany’s geographic focus is on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.  
  • Germany's federal elections held on September 26, 2021, marked the end of an era led by Chancellor Angela Merkel's following 16 years in office. The Social Democrats (SPD), led by current Chancellor Olaf Scholz, emerged from the election with the largest number of seats in the German parliament. The SPD, together with the Greens and Free Democratic Party (FDP) agreed to form a so-called ‘traffic light coalition’ (a reference to the parties’ traditional colors). The new government determines the political orientation of Germany’s development policy for the next four years.
  • The ongoing political discourse is largely dominated by the war in Ukraine and its domestic and international consequences. Three days into the Russian invasion of Ukraine, Chancellor Scholz announced the Zeitenwende (“turning-point,” or “watershed”), including far-reaching policy shifts for Germany such as the creation of a €100 billion (US$114 billion) special fund for the military to invest more than two percent of GDP on defense. Historically Germany has spent as little as 1.4% of its GDP on defense. Overall, the German government advocates for a holistic approach to human security and supports multilateral solutions. The government’s security policy focuses on a triad of foreign, defense and development policies.

Outlook

  • In December 2021, Svenja Schulze (SPD) took office as the new German Development Minister. Schulze, who served as the Minister for the Environment under the last government from 2018 to 2021, set her own priorities for German development cooperation, which has been largely influenced by her predecessor Gerd Müller over the last eight years. Schulze is interested in implementing a feminist development policy.  
  • In 2022, Germany took over the G7 Presidency. Within the government’s G7 program, entitled ‘Progress toward an equitable world’, climate protection, pandemic preparedness, sustainable infrastructure, and gender equality are, among others, highlighted as Germany’s focus areas throughout the presidency. However, the ongoing Russian invasion in Ukraine is heavily influencing the G7 agenda, especially the invasion’s impact on global food security. As a response, Germany, together with the World Bank, proposed a Global Alliance for Food Security to catalyze immediate and concerted response to the intensifying global hunger crisis, which was launched by the G7 states in May 2022.
  • In October 2020, the German Cabinet adopted a new cross-ministerial global health strategy for 2020-2030, which defines Germany’s strategic priorities in global health for the next 10 years including health systems strengthening, pandemic prevention, and driving forward research on global health. The strategy also emphasizes strengthening the multilateral global health architecture.

Policy Priorities

Development cooperation to focus on One Health, gender equality, food security, and climate mitigation and adaptation in the years ahead.

The government’s coalition treaty (2021-2025) lists the following development priorities: 1) One Health and pandemic preparedness, 2) Gender equality, 3) Education, 4) Food security, and 5) climate mitigation and adaptation. The new government took office in December 2021; therefore, concrete initiatives within these priorities have not yet been developed, and initial strategies are expected to be published over the course of 2022.  New Development Minister Svenja Schulze (SPD) highlighted fair and sustainable globalization, nutrition and potable water, and renewable energy as priority thematic areas for the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) going forward. Within the global health sector, the BMZ will focus on strengthening the global adoption of the One Health approach. The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region will remain the regional development focus for the BMZ. Enhancing Germany’s multilateral cooperation with the EU and its Member States, G7 and G20 countries, and UN institutions, and implementing a feminist development policy will shape the BMZ’s work in the years ahead.

In 2022 the BMZ focuses on four priority areas: 1) Agriculture and food security, 2) Displacement and migration, 3) Pandemic Preparedness and One Health, and 4) Climate change (see box: ‘Germany’s key development priorities in 2022’).


Germany’s key development priorities in 2022:

  • Agriculture and food security, e.g., through BMZ’s special initiative ‘ONE WORLD - No Hunger’ with €615 million (US$701 million) in 2022.
  • Flight and migration, through the special initiative ‘Tackling root causes of displacement, stabilizing host regions, supporting refugees’, BMZ allocated €453 million (US$516 million) for this issue in 2022.
  • Pandemic Preparedness and One Health is becoming a strengthened focus in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Climate change and renewable energy, with a pledge of €1.5 billion (US$1.7 billion) to the Green Climate Fund (2020 to 2023) and a pledge to annually contribute €1.5 billion (US$1.7 billion) for biodiversity conservation.

In May 2020, the BMZ published a new strategy document ‘Reform Strategy BMZ 2030’ (BMZ 2030), which aimed to fundamentally reform German development policy to make it more strategic, impactful, and efficient. According to BMZ 2030, the agency plans to concentrate its efforts on five key areas, considered the “DNA of the BMZ,” which should transcend legislative periods. Development cooperation in these areas is meant to take place both bilaterally and multilaterally. These focus areas will also set the thematic focus for the BMZ’s future collaboration with partner countries and will replace existing priority areas of bilateral cooperation.


Key focus areas and respective action areas (BMZ 2030)

  • Peace and societal cohesion

    • Good governance
    • Peace and crisis prevention
    • Flight and migration
  • ONE WORLD - No Hunger

    • Food security
    • Rural development
    • Agriculture
  • Vocational training, jobs

    • Vocational training
    • Privat sector, finance system development
    • Trade and economic infrastructure
  • Climate an energy

    • Climate protection, climate adaptation
    • Renewable energy, energy efficiency
    • Sustainable urban development
  • Environmental protection and natural resources

    • Biodiversity
    • Forest protection
    • Water
  • Health, social security, and population policy
    • Social security systems
    • One Health, pandemic prevention, and health system strengthening
    • Sexual and reproductive health and rights

In addition to these core areas, the BMZ plans to work on 10 ‘initiative themes’, which will receive special attention for selected periods (2-4 years). They include global health, pandemic preparedness, One Health, family planning, and digitalization.

Through its previous G7 and G20 presidencies, in 2015 and 2017 respectively, Germany strengthened its focus on global health, climate and sustainability, women’s empowerment, financial inclusion, and Germany’s relationship with the African continent. In 2022, Germany took over the G7 Presidency again. Within the government’s G7 program, titled ‘Progress toward an equitable world’, pandemic preparedness, climate protection, sustainable infrastructure, and gender equality are, among others, highlighted as Germany’s priorities throughout this presidency. However, the Russian invasion of Ukraine has strongly influenced this year’s agenda. The Development Ministers that met in May 2022, focused their discussions predominantly on the impact of the Russian invasion on global food security. The meeting marked the launch of a Global Alliance on Food Security (GAFS), which was proposed by German Development Minister Svenja Schulze during the World Bank’s Spring Meeting in April 2022. The alliance aims to increase funding for and coordinate international efforts for food security. Part of the meeting of the Development Ministers was shared with the Health Ministers to discuss the global response to the COVID-19 pandemic. One of the key results of the meeting includes the initiation of a ‘G7-Pact for Pandemic Readiness’, a global network of health experts, that aims to strengthen and align efforts for worldwide pandemic readiness.

In October 2020, the German Federal Cabinet adopted a new cross-ministerial global health strategy for 2020-2030, titled ’Responsibility – Innovation – Partnership: Shaping global health together’ to serve as the basis for Germany’s engagement in global health and to ensure Germany’s contribution to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 3 “Ensure healthy lives and promote wellbeing for all at all ages”). (See Sector: ‘Global health’ for more details.)

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the BMZ strengthened its focus on pandemic preparedness. To this end, the ministry established a new sub-division entitled ‘Special initiative pandemic and global health, pandemic prevention, One Health’. In November 2020, the BMZ published its first ‘One Health Strategy’, officially anchoring the climate-health-environment nexus in German development cooperation (See Sector: ‘Global health’ for more details.)

Since 2014, the BMZ’s increasing budget has been channeled through ‘special initiatives’, or programs spearheaded by the development minister. During the last legislative period (2017-2021), three special initiatives were prioritized: ‘tackling the root causes of displacement, reintegrating refugees’, ‘stability and development in the MENA region’, and ‘ONE WORLD – No Hunger’. In 2018, another special initiative on ‘vocational training and jobs’ was launched.

The German government is engaged in a new approach to development across the African continent focused on fostering private investment and good governance and is advocating for a concerted EU-Africa Policy at the EU level. In 2017, former development minister Gerd Müller presented a ‘Marshall Plan with Africa’ laying out initiatives to improve economic and social development. The plan suggested that countries willing to implement reforms would benefit from increased ODA and German support for private investment. Currently, the BMZ’s new strategy for development cooperation on the African continent is under development. It is expected to be published in autumn 2022 but no specific date has been defined yet. To date, Germany has so-called ‘reform partnerships’ based on this principle with seven countries in Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, the Ivory Coast, Morocco, Senegal, Togo, and Tunisia. These partnerships serve as Germany’s bilateral contribution to ‘Compacts with Africa’, a G20 initiative that was developed by the German Ministry of Finance and launched during Germany’s G20 presidency in 2017.

ODA Breakdown

Germany channels the majority of its ODA bilaterally

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The German government has a strong preference for bilateral funding. In 2020, bilateral funding accounted for 80% of total official development assistance (ODA), well above the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) average of 58%. This includes earmarked funding to multilateral organizations (18%), which is reported by the OECD as bilateral ODA. Germany’s preference for bilateral funding is driven by its two large government-owned implementing agencies, the German Corporation for International Cooperation (Gesellschaft für International Zusammenarbeit, GIZ) and the KfW Development Bank. Germany channels only small shares of its bilateral ODA through NGOs (7%, DAC average: 19%).

The largest share of bilateral funding is spent on education, including costs for students from partner countries, and hosting refugees in Germany

In response to the influx of asylum seekers to Germany since 2015, spending on humanitarian assistance and migration has increased significantly from pre-2015 levels. Even after a 16% decrease in volume from 2019, the cost of hosting refugees in Germany still accounted for the second-largest share of Germany’s bilateral funding in 2020 (10% of total bilateral assistance in 2020). Due to the influx of refugees from Ukraine to Germany in 2022, Germany’s in-country refugee costs will likely increase again significantly in 2022. Education (12%, +10% since 2019) received the largest share of Germany’s bilateral ODA; government & civil society (10%, +69% since 2019) received the third-largest share. However, more than half of Germany’s bilateral education ODA (US$1.8 billion, or 56%) represents costs for students from partner countries studying in Germany.

Agriculture and rural development (5%) receive relatively small shares of bilateral ODA. However, funding to the agriculture sector has increased by 56% since 2016. Environmental protection also only receives 4% of Germany’s bilateral ODA and stayed nearly unchanged compared to previous years (US$1.1 billion in 2020). Both, agriculture and rural development and environmental protection are supported through Germany’s contributions to multilateral organizations (For more information, see sectors:  ‘Agriculture’, and ‘Climate’).

Germany channels the largest share of its bilateral ODA as grants (75% in 2020, DAC average: 89%) with the remaining 25% disbursed as loans and equity investments (down from a peak of 34% in 2015).

Bilateral ODA for low-income countries below DAC average

A large share of Germany’s bilateral ODA is not allocated by region (31% in 2020) or income group (44%). This is partly due to Germany’s high share of in-country refugee costs. The following analyses exclude these costs to avoid misrepresentation of trends in key recipients of Germany’s ODA.

Germany allocates the largest shares of its bilateral ODA to Asia (27%) and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region (24%). Funding to ‘Sub-Saharan Africa’ (meaning Eastern, Western, Central, and Southern Africa, according to the African Union’s designations) has steadily increased over the last years, from 18% of Germany’s bilateral ODA in 2015 to 24% in 2020.

The portion of bilateral ODA going to low-income countries (LICs) is relatively low at 25% in 2020  It is also below Germany’s ambition to spend between 0.20% of GNI as ODA on LICs, which was affirmed by the 2021 to 2025 coalition treaty. In 2020, just 0.15% of GNI was spent on ODA to LICs.

Germany channels 74% of its bilateral ODA to middle-income countries (MICs). India, Indonesia, and the Syrian Arab Republic are the largest individual country recipients. Most funding to India (70%) and to Indonesia (89%) is provided in the form of loans or equity investments. 58% of the grants to India and 40% of the grants to Indonesia are made up of costs for students from those countries enrolled in German universities. (See sector: ‘Education’.) The top recipients of German grant funding are the Syrian Arab Republic, Ethiopia, Iraq, and Yemen. All funding to these countries comes in the form of grants.

Only 21% of Germany’s ODA is channeled multilaterally; however, earmarked funding to multilaterals has increased.

Until 2013, the German Parliament had capped multilateral spending at one-third of total German ODA. Although this cap has since been lifted, core funding to multilaterals remains low at only 20% of total ODA (DAC average: 42%). The largest recipients of multilateral funding in 2020 were EU institutions (54% of Germany’s multilateral ODA), ‘other multilateral institutions’ (including Gavi and the Global Fund, 16%), UN agencies (14%), the World Bank Group (11%), and regional development banks (4%).

Earmarked funding to multilaterals, which is channeled through multilateral development organizations for use in a specific sector or country (reported as bilateral ODA), has increased significantly in recent years, from US$1.2 billion in 2015 (6% of ODA) to US$5.7 billion in 2020 (18% of ODA). Growth has largely been driven by funding for humanitarian assistance and crisis response.

Unless otherwise indicated, all data in this section is based on the cash-flow basis measurement system. For more information, see our Donor Tracker Codebook.

For more granular and up-to-date development finance data on Germany, including information on where and in which sectors it is spending both ODA and non-ODA funds, please consult the IATI d-portal. IATI is a reporting standard and platform on which organizations and governments voluntarily publish data on their development cooperation.

Main Actors

The BMZ steers strategy; two development agencies execute

Germany is governed by the so-called ‘traffic light coalition’ (a reference to the parties’ traditional colors) made up of Chancellor Olaf Scholz’s center-left Social Democrats (SPD), the Greens, and the liberal Free Democratic Party (FDP). Under the overall guidance of the Chancellery, which is responsible for determining policy guidelines, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) sets development priorities. Development Minister Svenja Schulze (SPD) has led the BMZ since December 2021.

The BMZ is organized across six Directorates-General. The regional subdivisions allocate Germany’s bilateral development assistance according to the BMZ’s strategy and priorities. Sectoral subdivisions formulate Germany’s sector strategies, interface with multilateral development institutions, and advise on bilateral programs.

The programming of bilateral funding to partner countries is guided by regional strategies, which are developed by the BMZ’s regional divisions. Country strategies — developed for all priority countries — reflect the regional strategies and are created by country desk officers in cooperation with embassies, Germany’s state-owned development agency (GIZ), and its state-owned development bank (KfW). Bilateral cooperation with countries that are not classified as priority partners is based solely on the applicable regional strategy.

Germany’s two major state-owned development agencies, GIZ and KfW operate under the political supervision of the BMZ. Both play key roles in policy development, priority setting, and implementation.

  • GIZ plans and executes Germany’s technical cooperation with partner countries. GIZ also provides consulting services to the BMZ’s sectoral divisions through its ‘sector initiatives’ (‘Sektorvorhaben’).
  • KfW Development Bank leads on Germany’s bilateral financial cooperation with partner countries. It receives funding from the BMZ and raises its own funds on capital markets using KfW’s own resources.

The Federal Ministry of Finance (BMF), led by Minister Christian Lindner (FDP) develops caps for the federal budget and individual ministerial budgets. This makes it an important stakeholder when it comes to overall official development assistance (ODA) levels, the BMZ’s budget, and long-term ODA contributions.

Other ministries have a significant influence on the strategic direction and funding allocation in some development sectors. For example, the Federal Foreign Office (AA) leads on humanitarian assistance and crisis prevention. The Federal Ministry of Health (BMG) recently published a new, government-wide strategy for global health and is responsible for the majority of funding for the World Health Organization (WHO), and thus, is also a key stakeholder in the provision of Access to COVID-19 Tools Accelerator (ACT-A) funding. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) provides funding to the field of global health research, including the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), Product Development Partnerships, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) -related funding. Thus, it is currently also a key stakeholder in the provision of ACT-A funding for research and development (R&D) for COVID-19.

Germany_devcooperation

Parliament: The German Parliament (Bundestag) scrutinizes development policymaking, resource allocation, and implementation, mainly through its Committee on Economic Cooperation and Development (AWZ). The AWZ may also suggest changes to funding allocations in the government’s draft budget. However, the Budget Committee makes final budget decisions and is a key stakeholder when it comes to modifying funding allocations.

Civil Society: Civil society interacts in several ways with the government and Parliament including via petitions and conferences. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are frequently invited to parliamentary hearings and government consultations. Many CSOs implement their own in-country programs and are funded by the German government (mainly by the BMZ and the Foreign Office). About 120 development and humanitarian assistance-related CSOs coordinate their activities through the Association of German Development CSOs, VENRO. The ‘Forum Umwelt und Entwicklung’, which coordinates advocacy work for sustainable development and humanitarian assistance, is also considered an important stakeholder.

Budget Structure

BMZ manages the largest share of Germany’s ODA

Germany’s official development assistance (ODA) is sourced from the budgets of different ministries. The largest share of ODA comes from the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ, 45% in 2019, the latest year for which total ODA data is available from the Ministry). The Federal Foreign Office (AA), which manages most of the funding for humanitarian assistance and for UN peace missions, accounts for 15% of ODA overall. Another 5% is raised by Germany’s development bank, KfW, on capital markets.

The 2022 federal budget stands at €495.8 billion (US$565.0 billion). While the former government under Angela Merkel developed a first government draft, the new government, elected in September 2021, had to revise and adjust the draft, delaying the approval of the 2022 budget to June. The BMZ is set to receive €12.3 billion (US$14.1 billion) in 2022. According to the budget draft, the government is committed to maintaining its ODA to gross national income (GNI) ratio at 0.7% in 2022 by investing around €23.0 billion (US$26.2 billion) in development spending that year and €22.4 billion (US$25.5 billion) in 2023. As the costs of hosting refugees can be counted as ODA, the influx of Ukrainian refugees into Germany could further raise the country’s topline ODA figures.

Germany will continue to play a leading role in the global fight against COVID-19. According to the 2022 budget, Germany plans to make €1.3 billion (US$1.5 billion) available for ACT-A-related spending. These funds will come from Budget Plan 60, which is used for expenditures outside the core budget plan, and will be channeled to the specific ministries for their contributions to ACT-A partners:

  • BMZ will receive €784 million (US$893 million),
  • The Ministry of Health will receive €320 million (US$365 million),
  • AA will receive €140 million (US$160 million), and
  • The Ministry of Education and Research will receive €80 million (U$91 million).

TThe overall federal budget draft of the 2023 budget published in August 2022 is worth €445.2 billion (US$507.3 billion). The majority of ODA will be provided by the Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), which is set to receive €11.1 billion (US$1.6 billion) in 2023. The 2023 BMZ budget level marks a €1.3 billion (US$1.5 billion or -10%) drop from 2022 levels. The downward of the BMZ’s budget trend is set out to continue in the upcoming years from €10.7 billion (US$12.1 billion) in 2024 down to €10.4 billion (US$11.9 billion) in 2026. In the 2023 budget draft, the budget section funding ‘European development cooperation, United Nations (UN), and other international organizations’ has dropped by 23% compared to 2022, reaching €2.3 billion (US$2.6 billion). Despite Germany’s commitment to the Global Alliance for Food Security, spending for the World Food Programme (WFP) and the special initiative One World – No Hunger is set to decrease in 2023. While funding from a general budget line for global additional spending sitting in budget section 60 and amounting to €5.0 billion (US$5.7 billion) in 2023 (up from €4 billion (US$4.6 billion) in 2022) could be leveraged for additional spending on food security, unclarity remains on if and how this funding will be used going forward. Budget negotiations are currently ongoing and will be finalized on November 10, 2022.

The BMZ’s budget (see table) is composed of different budget envelopes, including:

  • The ‘Bilateral development cooperation’ envelope includes budget lines for major regions and is broken down by annual allocations to specific country programs;
  • The ‘European development cooperation, United Nations (UN), and other international organizations’ envelope includes budget lines for multilateral organizations related to climate change and biodiversity, most of the global health multilaterals, as well as for various UN programs; and
  • The ‘Multilateral development banks’ envelope includes contributions to the World Bank Group, as well as the African Development Bank and Asian Development Bank.

Overview: 2022 BMZ Budget
 


€, millions


US$, millions

Bilateral Spending 5,364 6,113
Financial cooperation  2,408 2,744
Technical cooperation 1,970 2,245
Crisis response 879 1,002
Other contributions 107 122
Multilateral Spending 2,961 3,374
European Development Fund 566 645
Multilateral organizations related to climate change and biodiversity 786 896
The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria 475 541
UN organizations 1,006 1,146
World Food Programme 70 80
Promotion of international agricultural research 35 40
International Fund for Agricultural Development 23 26
Development Banks 1,148 1,308
World Bank Group 777 885
African Development Bank 341 389
Asian Development Bank 26 30
Caribbean Development Bank 4 5
Cooperation w/ CSOs, private sector & others 1,320 1,504
Other commitments (incl. special initiatives) 1,360 1,550
International efforts to fight climate change 56 64
ONE WORLD – No Hunger 615 701
Tackling roots causes of displacement 453 516
Stability and Development in the MENA region 42 48
Vocational training and jobs 155 177
Reconstruction and development in Namibia 35 40
Other expenses 4 5
Research, evaluation, and qualification in development cooperation  53 60
Administrative and personnel expenses 3 3
Expenses Ministry  140 160
Total spending 12,349 14,072

Budget Process

Major ODA increases or changes are confirmed early in the year; Parliament usually debates the budget between September and November.

Germany_budgetprocess

The fiscal year (FY) runs from January to December. The chart depicts the regular budget decision-making process.

  • February/March: Cabinet agrees on caps for federal and ministerial budgets. In March 2022, the Federal Ministry of Finance published caps for the federal budget and individual ministerial budgets. At this point, decisions on increases in ODA and the overall funding allocation were taken. A key stakeholder during this period is the Finance Minister. The Development Ministry provides input. Major funding decisions are budgeted at this time of the year.
  • April-August: Negotiations within ministries. Ministries develop their budgets in April and submit them to the Ministry of Finance. Allocations to individual international organizations are determined during this period. In parallel, between April and August, the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) plans its bilateral spending and multilateral funding envelopes.
  • August: Draft budget and medium-term financial planning. This year, the Cabinet negotiated the budget and published the final government’s budget draft in early August. A green print version with some details missing was already published in early July.  Key players in this period are the Chancellery, the Finance Ministry, and the Development Ministry. Usually, the publication of the government’s budget draft takes place in June, right before parliament’s summer break.
  • End of September/Beginning of October: Parliamentary debates and proposed amendments. This year, the first reading in Parliament took place in early September. Parliament will debate the budget until early November.
  • September/October: Amendments reviewed and recommendations to committees. This year, the Development Committee (AWZ) will make recommendations on budget amendments in September. In October, BMZ’s budget will be debated by the Development Committee and Budget Committee.
  • November: Amendments, decisions on each ministerial budget, and voting. The Budget Committee will take final decisions on November 10 which makes members of the Budget Committee (especially those of the government coalition parties) central stakeholders during this phase.
  • December: The final budget draft is voted on in plenary and signed by the President.