EU - Gender equality
At a glance
The EUI are gradually increasing the share of ODA disbursed for gender-equality focused projects
The European Union institutions (EUI; including the European Commission and the European Investment Bank, EIB) provided US$6.1 billion in ODA for gender equality in 2019, making it the fourth-largest Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donor to these types of projects. This includes investments in programs that named gender equality as either one significant goal or the principal goal of the investment. This accounts for 37% of its bilateral allocable ODA (DAC average: 47%).
The share of EUI ODA spent on gender-related projects has gradually increased since 2015 (23%), however, has remained below the target set out in the EUI’s Gender Action Plan for 2016-20 (GAP II), titled ‘Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment: Transforming the Lives of Girls and Women through EU External Relations 2016-20’. According to GAP II, by 2020, 85% of new development programs should have had a gender focus. GAP II also mandated that the EU and its member states apply the OECD gender policy marker at the budgetary approval stage and required programs in the EU’s priority sectors to undergo a gender analysis. Projects that had no gender dimension had to be justified. Implementation of GAP II was mandatory for the EUI and its member states.
Then in November 2020, the European Commission and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy put forward the EU's new Action Plan on Gender Equality and Women's Empowerment in External Action 2021–2025 (GAP III). GAP III is based on five pillars:
- Ensuring 85% of all new actions related to external relations contribute to gender equality and women's empowerment by 2025.
- Implementing a shared strategic vision and close cooperation with member states and partners at multilateral, regional, and country-level.
- Accelerating progress by focusing on the key thematic areas of engagement: 1) Ending gender-based violence (GBV); 2) Sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR); 3) Economic and social rights and empowerment; 4) Equal participation and leadership; 5) Women, peace and security; and 6) Green and digital transformations.
- Having the EU lead by example by establishing gender-responsive and gender-balanced leadership at top political and management levels.
- Setting up a quantitative, qualitative, and inclusive monitoring system to increase public accountability, ensure transparency and access to information on its assistance to gender equality worldwide.
Gender policy marker: Projects which “advance gender equality and women’s empowerment or reduce discrimination and inequalities based on sex” are tagged in the OECD’s Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database.
Recent research by Oxfam found that around 25% of projects self-reported by donors using the gender equality marker were mismarked. This has implications for the validity of funding figures.
The marker rates projects based on three possible scores:
- Principal, meaning that gender equality is the main objective of the project or program;
- Significant, for projects in which gender equality is an important and deliberate goal but not the main objective; or
- Not targeted, used in cases where programs do not target gender equality.
Not all projects are screened against the gender marker; this funding falls into the ‘not screened’ category.
Funding for projects with a significant gender focus is increasing; screening of ODA against the gender marker has fluctuated
Only 3% (US$548 million) of the EUI’s bilateral allocable ODA was directed toward projects and programs that targeted gender equality as a principal goal, far below the DAC average of 6%. In absolute terms, the EUI ranks third among donors when considering absolute spending on principal gender funding. The EUI’s funding for projects with a principal gender focus remained consistent between 2015 and 2017 at 2% of bilateral allocable ODA.
In addition, the EUI spent US$5.5 billion (34%) of its bilateral allocable ODA on projects that included gender as a significant objective (DAC average: 41%). The EUI’s financing of projects and programs with gender as a significant objective has consistently increased since 2015 when it stood at US$3.1 billion or 21% of bilateral allocable ODA.
The remainder of the EUI’s bilateral allocable ODA (US$6.9 billion or 42%) was spent on projects that did not target gender at all, while US$3.4 billion (21%) was not screened against the gender marker in 2019.
The EUI has fluctuated in its consistency of using the OECD gender policy marker: Although all bilateral allocable ODA was screened in 2017, 26% was not screened in 2018 and 21% was not screened in 2019
DG INTPA’s Directorate on Human Development, Migration, Governance and Peace leads policy development on gender in external action
The European Commission’s Directorate-General for International Partnerships (DG INTPA; formerly the Directorate-General for International Cooperation and Development or DG DEVCO) leads the European Commission’s policies on gender equality in EU external action. DG INTPA is led by the Commissioner for International Partnerships, Jutta Urpilainen, and its Director-General Koen Doens and its two Deputy Director-Generals, Marjeta Jager and Martin Seychell. Gender equality policy falls under DDG Jager’s remit under Directorate G ‘Human Development, Migration, Governance and Peace’, which is led by Henriette Geiger. Its Unit is G.1: ‘Gender Equality, Human Rights, and Democratic Governance’.
DG INTPA’s gender equality work is guided by the ‘European Consensus on Development’ and the ‘EU Global Strategy’, which identify equality and women empowerment as a cross-cutting issue for all EU policies. Priorities include empowering women and girls, ending violence against women and girls, and ending harmful practices