At a glance

Funding trends

In 2018, bilateral official development assistance (ODA) from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) donors that contributed to climate objectives stood at US$33.2 billion. This represents a 37% increase from US$24.2 billion in 2014 and includes funding for projects that include climate change mitigation and/or adaptation as either a principal or a significant goal (see box below for details). Of this US$33.2 billion, 48% went to climate change mitigation activities, 25% to climate change adaptation, and 27% to projects that addressed both climate change mitigation and adaptation.

The picture changes when looking at funding for projects that integrate climate-related goals as the principal objective: Principal climate-related funding stood at US$10.7 billion in 2018, down by 26% since 2014 (US$14.4 billion).

Top donors

In 2018, the donors that made the largest commitments of climate-related ODA (including both principal and significant funding) were Japan (US$9.6 billion), Germany (US$8.0 billion), the EU institutions (US$5.6 billion), the United Kingdom (US$2.0 billion), and Sweden (US$1.4 billion). In relative terms, the top donors were Japan (53% of bilateral allocable ODA), Slovenia (45%), Germany (42%), Sweden, (40%), and Poland (37%).

The largest commitments of principal funding for action against climate change in 2018 were made by Germany (US$4.0 billion), the EU Institutions (US$1.8 billion), the United Kingdom (US$1.5), the United States (US$646 million), and Japan (US$539 million). In terms of principal funding as a percentage of overall bilateral allocable ODA, Poland (35%), the United Kingdom (22%), Germany (21%), Canada (18%), and Norway (14%) were the top donors.


These figures are based on funding for projects tagged in the OECD’s Creditor Reporting System (CRS) database with the Rio markers for climate change mitigation and/or climate change adaptation. Projects can be tagged with either or both markers.

Each marker has three possible scores:

  1. Principal, for projects in which climate change mitigation or adaptation is a fundamental and explicitly stated goal;
  2. Significant, for projects in which climate change mitigation or adaptation is not a key driver but still an explicitly stated goal; or
  3. Not targeted, meaning the project does not address climate change mitigation or adaptation.

Not all projects are screened against the Rio markers; this funding falls into the ‘not screened’ category.


Unless otherwise indicated, all data in this section is based on commitments. For more information, see our Donor Tracker Codebook.


Total ODA for Climate

Climate funding by type of intervention

Climate focus of bilateral allocable ODA

Climate funding ranking

For further details on methodology, see our Donor Tracker Codebook.